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The Revolution before the Revolution

Late Authoritarianism and Student Protest in Portugal

Guya Accornero

186 pages, 6 illus., bibliog., index

ISBN  978-1-78533-114-5 $90.00/£64.00 Hb Published (April 2016)

eISBN 978-1-78533-115-2 eBook

Hb   Request a Review or Examination Copy (in Digital Format) Recommend to your Library Buy the ebook from these vendors

“This is an excellent study of the political mobilization of students in the long 1960s and its global diffusion in an authoritarian setting. It will be essential reading for students of social movements and political and cultural change in Europe.” · António Costa Pinto, University of Lisbon

“While there have been important studies of the rural and labor movements against the Portuguese dictatorship, the era’s student movements have for the most part not yet been approached in the same vein. Guya Accornero’s book on the subject combines important empirical research with a clear theoretical framework, making a contribution that is relevant beyond just Portuguese history.” · Rafael Durán-Muñoz, Universidad de Málaga

Histories of Portugal’s transition to democracy have long focused on the 1974 military coup that toppled the authoritarian Estado Novo regime and set in motion the divestment of the nation’s colonial holdings. However, the events of this “Carnation Revolution” were in many ways the culmination of a much longer process of resistance and protest originating in universities and other sectors of society. Combining careful research in police, government, and student archives with insights from social movement theory, The Revolution before the Revolution broadens our understanding of Portuguese democratization by tracing the societal convulsions that preceded it over the course of the “long 1960s.”

Guya Accornero is a research fellow at the Centre for Research and Studies in Sociology, Lisbon University Institute (CIES-IUL). She has published articles in journals such as West European Politics, Democratization, and Cultures and Conflicts, and she is the co-editor (with Olivier Fillieule) of the volume Social Movement Studies in Europe in Berghahn’s “Protest, Culture, and Society” series.

Series: Volume 18, Protest, Culture & Society
Subject: 20th Century History Sociology
Area: Southern Europe

LC: DP680 .A6245 2016

BISAC: HIS045000 HISTORY/Europe/Spain & Portugal; SOC026000 SOCIAL SCIENCE/Sociology/General; HIS031000 HISTORY/Revolutionary

BIC: HBTV Revolutions, uprisings, rebellions; JHBA Social theory


List of Illustrations


List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1. Two Decades that Shook the World, 1956-1974

  • Old structures and new conflicts
  • Student networks and repertories under the New State

Chapter 2. The First Protest Cycle: 1956-1965

  • The weakening of the Salazarist system
  • The academic crisis of 1962
  • The end of the protest cycle

Chapter 3. 'The Marcelo's Spring' and the Opening of a Second Protest Cycle

  • Marcelism
  • Mobilization resources and repertoire
  • The divergent paths of student contestation in Coimbra and Lisbon

Chapter 4. Protest Cycle or Permanent Conflict?

  • The new objectives of the student movement
  • The University of Lisbon: ‘an authentic boiler of revolutionaries’

Chapter 5. The Demise of the New State

  • The end of the regime: mechanisms and processes
  • Students and the revolution
  • The ancient regime and the revolution

Conclusions: Social Movements and Authoritarianism: A Paradoxical Relationship


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