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The German Economy During the Nineteenth Century

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The German Economy During the Nineteenth Century

Toni Pierenkemper and Richard Tilly

194 pages, 6 maps, 21 diag., 54 tables, bibliog., index

ISBN  978-1-57181-063-2 $135.00/£99.00 Hb Published (February 2004)

ISBN  978-1-57181-064-9 $27.95/£22.95 Pb Published (February 2004)

eISBN 978-1-78238-721-3 eBook

Hb Pb   Buy the eBook from these vendors Request a Review or Examination Copy (in Digital Format) Recommend to your Library Available in GOBI®


"For some time to come, this book will guarantee that the knowledge of German industrialization and the latest information on German research will be much improved and up to date abroad." For some time to come, this book will guarantee that the knowledge of German industrialization and the latest information on German research will be much improved and up to date abroad."  ·  Vierteljarschrift für Sozial und Wirtschaftsgeschichte

"The data ... collected is so impressive, and the economic history so difficult to master, that most [scholars] will need this book on their shelves."  ·  Eric Dorn Brose, Drexel University

“…an outstanding primer on the 19th Century German economy… professors and graduate students will certainly profit from the wealth of statistical data assembled from classic and current studies...there are many ways to read this insightful, well-crafted book [that] deserves a wide readership.”  ·  German History


In the 19th Century, economic growth was accompanied by large-scale structural change, known as industrialization, which fundamentally affected western societies. Even though industrialization is on the wane in some advanced economies and we are experiencing substantial structural changes again, the causes and consequences of these changes are inextricably linked with earlier industrialization.This means that understanding 19th Century industrialization helps us understand problems of contemporary economic growth. There is no recent study on economic developments in 19th Century Germany. So this concise volume, written specifically with students of German and economic history in mind, will prove to be most valuable, not least because of its wealth of statistical data.

Toni Pierenkemper is Professor of Economic and Social History at the University of Cologne.

Richard Tilly is Emeritus Professor of Economic and Social History at the University of Münster.

Subject: Economic History 18th/19th Century History
Area: Germany


List of Illustrations
List of Tables



Chapter 1. The German “State”: Changing Boundaries

  • Germany at the End of the Eighteenth Century
  • Germany during the Napoleonic Wars (1793 to 1806–15)
  • Germany after the Congress of Vienna
  • Germany and the Zollverein (1834–1866)
  • Germany and the North German Confederation (1866–1870)
  • The German Kaiserreich

Chapter 2. A Quantitative Overview of Germany’s Economic Expansion in the Nineteenth Century

Chapter 3. Institutional and Commercial Preconditions

  • Agrarian Reforms: The Case of Prussia
  • The Development of the German Zollverein,
  • The Zollverein and Monetary Integration: The Rise of the Mark
  • The Impact of Monetary and Banking Reforms
  • A Methodological Note on Causality

Chapter 4. The Emergence of a Modern Economy

  • Capital Formation
  • Labor Force
  • Labor in Agriculture
  • Labor in Industry and Handicrafts
  • Technology and Competition: The Case of the Iron Industry
  • Railways and the Leading Sector Syndrome: Backward and Forward Linkages
  • The Role of the State


Chapter 5. Agriculture

  • Production and Productivity
  • Agricultural Protection

Chapter 6. Population and Labor

  • Population and Migration
  • Population Growth
  • Population Dynamics
  • Migration
  • Labor Force Development
  • Size and Structure
  • Quality of Labor
  • Living Conditions
  • Institutional Arrangements

Chapter 7. Money and Banking

  • Structure of the Banking Sector
  • Contributions of Banks to Industrial Growth

Chapter 8. Entrepreneurship

  • Social Origins and Mobility
  • Traditional Obstacles
  • Qualifications
  • Political Influence

Chapter 9. The Role of the State

  • Mercantilist Traditions and Periodization
  • “New” Economic Policies
  • Nationalization of the Railways
  • Fiscal and Tariff Policy
  • Social Policy

Chapter 10. The International Economy

  • International Trade at Mid-century
  • Trade Expansion, 1870–1914
  • Growing Protectionism after 1870
  • Foreign Investment


Selected Bibliography

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